4.0 Summary and Outline of a Proposed Constitution
4.0.1 Summary last revised/edited 2/2015, 11/2016, 6/2017, 9/2018
revised/edited 6/2014, 2/2015, 11/2016, 6/2017, 9/2018
4.0.2 Outline of a proposed constitution and its goals last revised/edited 2/2015, 11/2016, 6/2017, 9/2018
4.0.3 Human rights and laws
4.0.1 Summary last revised/edited 2/2015, 11/2016, 6/2017, 9/2018
Cultural nstitutions are not shaped by the character of the people,
rather, institutions shape people, their character, and their
interactions. We are born into cultures and few individuals are able to
actuate changes. The goal of this model is to create institutions that
improve human interactions and the quality of life of all people.
Incentive structures are a central problem in most
democracies. In the USA, economic incentives encourage unethical
behaviors by banks, corporations and governmental institutions; with
risk taking in business decisions and political actions, the
influential person may win or not win, but losses are passed on to
customers, investors, workers and society.
Of particular significance are economic institutions and
the study of natural ethics. Ethical principles must be integrated in
all institutions and considered in all relevant decisions.
In this model, the economy is decentralized. Economic
activities are supported by savings, interest-free loans and grants,
issued by local branches of the central or federal bank and by local
cooperative banks. Lending activities by banks are very limited.
Production facilities are mostly owned by their workers and people
directly involved with the products’ design, development and
Taxation consists primarily of sales and property taxes.
Levels of taxation are designed to encourage economic activities that
are ecologically sound and improve the quality of life; many products
and production processes are discouraged through luxury and dyseconomy
taxes (dys- means ‘bad,’ ‘painful’). All citizens receive a basic
minimum income, which may be considered a return of sales taxes on
basic consumption, and for the very poor, a negative income tax. This
income varies according to location and is adjusted to the local
The political system is a highly decentralized multiparty
democracy. Governments usually contract with local enterprises to
provide the services for which they take responsibility, to build and
maintain the infrastructure, etc. Improved principles of voting are
An independent government branch arranges elections and
referenda. This agency is responsible for informing the voters on
candidates and issues. It also determines basic qualifications for
candidates (mainly educational), and who may vote; for instance, in a
referendum concerning women’s issues, only women may be allowed to vote.
To halt ingrained unethical traditions and to avoid
conflicts of interest, elected and appointed officials must not be
citizens of the area they govern or of neighboring areas, they must
come from distant places and/or cultures; as an alternative, important
positions may be shared by a local politician and a person recruited
from a distant area.
Human rights, important issues of international or global
concern and ethical decision-making are taught at all levels and
implemented wherever possible. Self-monitoring and peer supervision are
broadly instituted. International cooperation is a high priority.
There are no courts that determine guilt and punish.
Negative consequences of unethical and dangerous behaviors, such as
fines, are to spoil rewards of the behaviors. Conflicts between
individuals and conflicts between or within institutions are referred
to public mediation and arbitration services. Persons who are dangerous
for any reason are considered emotionally disturbed; they are generally
treated as persons with a mental (psychiatric) disorder. Treatment of
emotionally disturbed persons is comprehensive and includes different
levels of services within the community or treatment in residential
settings, short-term, long-term, or indefinite. While ending patterns
of violence and protecting possible victims is a primary goal,
perpetrators must be treated in a humane way.
Economic changes may appear most difficult. However, with a political
will, disincentives to speculative investments, which threaten the
whole world economic system, are possible. To summarize relevant steps:
Separating conventional banking from speculation and investments in the
‘shadow banking system,’ and forbidding banks’ investing in complex
‘financial instruments’ such as derivatives and hedge funds, ‘synthetic
portfolios,’ etc. All sales of stock, bonds and other securities and
real estate should be taxed, slowing down transactions, encouraging
long-term planning, and giving governments added income. Newly issued
money should be directly moved into circulation rather than into bank
reserves; conventional bank functions are maintained with people
depositing savings and borrowing mainly to buy homes, enterprises
mostly investing own profits and borrowing some from banks to expand
and for research and development. Additional funding of enterprises may
consist in bonds and stock that are only sold to people directly
involved with the design, production and distribution of its products.
Individuals and enterprises should own enough money to operate without
significant loans from private investors and financial institutions.
A shift in thinking is needed: Owning capital, such as
real estate or a business, gives people the freedom to work
independently, doing management work, realizing one’s skills as farmer
or in a business, etc, and it is valuable for added retirement income
when later selling one’s assets. It is ethically wrong to expect that
just owning properly should bring profits. Owners’ demand of rents
above what is needed to maintain the property and pay taxes led to the
incredible accumulation of wealth in very few families. Profits do not
lead to progress, people with a drive to make improvements do. Managers
and specialists do not deserve hugely higher salaries than unskilled
workers who do needed work that nobody else wants to do. For the
success of surgeries, cleaning personnel, infection control nurse and
surgeon are similarly important. Financial “services” are not helping
the economy by optimally allocating material resources; they sift
profits off other people’s work. CEOs may have talents but in few
civilizations are they paid incomes hundreds of times higher than
salaries of average workers, as is common in the USA.
Progress is not guided by profits: ideas of visionary
leaders and scientific-technological work do. Most scientists,
engineers and inventors are paid employees who will not own and profit
from the patents gained in their work. Investors hardly understand
whether the money they lend will be well used but with very high
profits from some investments, they can risk losing much money in other
endeavors. Leaders in the field, many of whom work in universities, and
peers who work in leading enterprises would be much more qualified to
allocate money for research and the development of new technologies.
Profits distort directions of developments. What is simply
good is usually seen with suspicion and may not attract investors. What
is enticing and addicting is much more likely to bring high profits
than what improves people's quality of life.
Proposed changes in legal systems are less radical than
they may seem. A move towards mediation, only minor punishments and a
main focus on rehabilitation, rather than punishments, is taking place
in many civilizations. Peace, not punishments or 'justice,' was
the main goal in settling conflicts in ancestral gathering-hunting
civilizations. Punishments that are much more severe than the crime,
such as stoning people for premarital sex or hanging a thief, have been
futile attempts to make people complacent and were embedded in
religions; “an eye for an eye” was actually a move towards less cruel
punishments and Christian ethics does not condone any punishment.
4.0.2 Outline of a proposed constitution and its goals last revised/edited 2/2015, 11/2016, 6/2017, 9/2018
The government has the function of fulfilling all tasks of a society
that individuals cannot fulfill or that should not be fulfilled by
private enterprises because of significant conflicts of interest and
other ethical issues.
Political and economic decision-making is highly
decentralized with regional and central (federal) agencies having more
coordinating, guiding and sometimes mediating functions. Governance is
based on the principles of a secular multiparty indirect or direct
All political and economic decisions must be based on
scientific data and the principles of science-based or natural ethics,
and they must observe the intent and objectives of the universal
declaration of human rights. Governments must rely on scientists who
are to serve as consultants in all areas of government responsibilities.
Elections, referenda and political processes are adapted
to local level of literacy and access to information and they are
- to prevent a disproportionate influence of the wealthy, of corporations and of powerful special interests;
- to prevent any form of corruption or favoritism and minimize conflicts of interests;
- to greatly reduce the propensity to elect extremist candidates;
- to avoid religious teachings over-ruling ethics and human rights;
- to encourage changing or eradicating ingrained unethical practices and traditions; and
- to assure a focus on most important issues.
Political units of federation: the federation (country) is divided into
- Communities (neighborhoods of a city, small towns or groups of settlements) with about 1,000 inhabitants.
- Districts (or areas), comparable to counties, e.g. a valley, mid-size
city or part of a metropolitan area (typically less than 100
- Regions (comparable to a state, ‘province’, ‘Bundesland’ or ‘Kanton’)
are relatively small and more defined by cultural-commercial centers
and geographic, cultural and linguistic regions than historical
political boundaries (e.g. the U.S. state of Texas could not form one
Federal and regional governments have parliaments with two
chambers of equal power; the larger chamber consists of men, the
smaller chamber of women.
Elected officials discuss and establish priorities and
goals for government work including guiding economic processes based on
goals of their parties and input from communities, grassroots
movements, journalists, academic consultants, etc.
There is no separation of legislative and executive
functions. When setting priorities, goals and plans and when working on
implementing them, decisions must not be based on a simple majority
vote but on seeking consensus or a ‘common denominator’ that is
acceptable to essentially all. Representatives of each chamber meet
regularly to seek consensus or mutually acceptable compromises.
Executive committees are created to work out details and
implement plans of the parliament. Executive committee members are
elected by the parliament and consist of members of the elected
government bodies and outsiders. Committee members must be qualified,
having broad education and knowledge in relevant issues. There are
permanent executive committees and temporary committees that work on
specific issues. Leading committees of up to 7 persons replace
positions such as president, prime minister or governor.
Ethics committees oversee all work done by governmental
bodies to assure that principles of natural ethics and human rights are
Members of regional government bodies and particularly
officials with executive functions and ethics committee representatives
must not be from the region they work for or its neighbors and they
must meet specific educational requirements including courses related
to human nature, cultures, ethics and economics; the leaders of a
federation should be foreigners. Important positions may be shared
between a local person and a knowledgeable, objective outsider with
each of them having veto power.
The federal executive committee must work towards what
appears best for the world community, the country and its regions, and
it mediates between the interests of regions and districts. The federal
government is to seek good relationships with all neighbors and the
politics, female perspectives are often more appropriate and relevant
for a civilization than male perspectives. The genetically (directly by
genes in Y chromosome) and hormonal determined anatomic and functional
differences between male and female brains are significant and lead to
different ways of approaching social and physical environments.
Generally, men are more dogmatic, logically consequent and
legalistic, women more pragmatic and socially conscious. Men may look
at a potential action in narrowly goal-oriented ways; women tend to
simultaneously consider consequences for families and the whole
population. Men tend to be more inconsiderate in competitive behaviors
while women tend to be more concerned with creating and maintaining
good relationships. Men are more likely to consider major physical
violence, including wars, than women. In competition and hostilities,
women tend to be more mentally cruel than physically violent. However,
there is considerable adaptability of mental functions. In patriarchal
cultures, women have often participated in pursuing men’s cruel goals,
some worst examples include female genital mutilations, mothers
participating in abuses and executions of by rape dishonored girls and
women ‘breaking’ young girls to become enslaved prostitutes; many women
still believe husbands have a right to savagely beat them and their
children. Many women politicians and administrators have adapted to
ways of their male colleagues, which may not feel natural to them and
often appear inferior to more “feminine” approaches.
Scientists should participate in government functions as
consultants, but they should never consider themselves or be treated as
being on a higher level than ethics committees, since scientific
expertise does not necessarily increase a person’s wisdom or ethical
Reasons for provisions to utilize outsiders in government
functions are: Inefficient, wasteful, unethical, even cruel traditions
and practices are usually condoned and perceived as “normal” by local
people, and local candidates are part of local groups with their
specific biases and inherent conflicts of interests. Federal positions
may also be filled by university professors who work temporarily
part-time in that capital’s university (many executive positions are
not full-time work and may not require that the person lives all year
in the country or region that offers the position).
Community level: In the majority of the world’s countries,
particularly in the Third World (in most former colonies and where a
dictator was disposed), there is hardly adequate free journalism and
literacy to allow a meaningful direct democracy. Instead of all
inhabitants voting, communities of homogenous populations may elect or
designate two representatives, one male and one female, that are widely
respected and trusted, for one year; these representatives may be
reelected without limits. If communities are quite heterogeneous, they
may be broken down into 6 to 10 districts representing subgroups or
parties, each having public meetings and electing a male and female
The goal is that all places are represented and have
persons who can serve as intermediary between governments and the
people. These community representatives elect people for the
governmental positions with administrative, legislative and executive
functions, and they may be elected themselves.
In areas with adequate education and free, broadly
accessible media, community inhabitants may determine if they wish to
be represented by 6-10 representatives or have a direct democracy may
allow essentially all community inhabitants to vote; however, voting is
limited by age and mentally retarded or demented persons and some other
groups must be represented by specified responsible adults. People
without adequate knowledge of individual candidates are advised to vote
for the party that best represents their values and views and party
votes go to the candidates of that party with the most votes.
Individuals may allow others to represent them, however no person may
represent more than a few individuals (as specified at the community
On a district level, each community has one vote: if the
community has two representatives, each has 1/2, if 8 representatives,
each has 1/8 vote.
The constitution leaves much freedom as to how communities
and districts are organized and governed but principles of ethics must
be recognized and followed.
Parties are groups of voters who represent viewpoints that
generally at least 10% of the population considers relevant. Parties
may start as wings of existing parties but become independent when
reaching a certain fraction of the population. Generally, districts are
expected to have up to seven parties who do not form firm blocks but
can align with any other party depending on the issue.
The agency for elections and referenda works largely like
an executive committee; it includes members from all regions. This
agency organizes elections and referenda and is also responsible for
the ways citizens are informed about issues, parties and candidates; it
may censor and/or add comments to private political announcements that
are untrue or misleading and/or create associations that are not
directly relevant and/or try to influence policies in support of
corporations and special interest groups. It may determine who may
vote: for specific elections and referenda, there may be a decision to
allow only a specific segment of the population to vote, for instance
women in referenda on women’s issues. It generally sets educational
requirements for candidates such as courses in ethics, economics,
cultural issues, human nature, etc.
Largely independent government agencies include:
- The central (federal) bank that creates the money supply and regulates financial institutions.
- The agency for elections and referenda (see above).
- The agency for ethics.
The federal government creates and manages the money
supply, regulates financial institutions and establishes a system of
taxation; it is responsible to guide economic activities and
developments with support, regulations and targeted measures, including
incentives that lead the economy towards improving the quality of life
of all people and to protecting the environment.
However, local governments may also establish a local, not
internationally tradable money supply (for instance to stimulate
economic activities in agricultural areas and reduce the flow of money
to the cities); and they may add or vary taxations as incentives or
Other economic functions of governments include:
- The government has the responsibility to guide economic activities
and developments with regulations, support and targeted measures, with
incentives that lead the economy to improve the quality of life of all
people and to protect the environment and disincentives (taxes) to
discourage harmful or wasteful economic activities.
- The government has to foster and possibly support decentralized
economic entities that are adapted to local conditions and needs.
- The government fulfills a role of stewardship and may regulate the
judicious use of natural resources including water, minerals and fossil
fuels, and the preservation of fossils, rare human artifacts and
The agency for ethics, mostly works through local
committees. They fulfill the function of legal system and law
enforcement, they establish and coordinate preventive measures, and
they monitoring governmental and private agencies.
Transgressions of ethics by individuals are not punished but must lead
to corrective actions, particularly therapeutic approaches and
mediation, restitution to victims as feasible (usually mostly
symbolic), and preventive measures. Disincentives may include fines and
required community work. Safe treatment may require long-term
residential or camp settings that include the teaching of cooperation
and compassionate empathy. Unethical behaviors of persons as
professionals, employers, employees or government officials are
primarily addressed through peer supervision with peers having enough
distance to be objective and feeling free to criticize wrongdoing. The
regional or federal government agency for ethics and its committees may
intervene if there is indication that peer supervision or local
The federal government, working with local governments and
private institutions, takes responsibility to establish, organize and
maintain the vital systems of the civilization, particularly education,
healthcare and infrastructure, including utilities and transportation.
Otherwise, the federal government has more coordinating and mediating
than powerful executive functions. Federal and regional governments
share the responsibility for a safety net and they function as employer
of last resort.
An army serves exclusively for peacekeeping missions and disaster relief.
Governments must work with academic consultants in all
areas of government responsibilities, and scientists are encouraged to
serve in government positions.
While clans and ethnic or religious-cultural groups may be
important for people’s sense of identity, parties, representatives and
executive committees must never represent the interests and biases of
specific groups, such as clans, religious groups, ethnic and other
local cultural groups, professional organizations, etc.
Parties serve to maintain awareness of special conditions
and needs of groups. They must not seek advantages or preferential
treatment of groups.
All government bodies and particularly executive
committees must be secular. They are formed of a broad mix of different
people, and, except in parliaments that have a chamber of women and a
chamber of men representatives, both sexes have to be represented in
all government bodies and agencies. All representatives and government
bodies must work for the whole regions and country rather than
primarily for interests of their electorate; they are to follow highest
international standards of ethics and relevant sciences.
Resources are to a significant degree distributed
according to needs. For example, rural, thinly populated areas need
relatively high investments for infrastructure, but people may agree
that depopulation trends are not desirable; some population groups with
high diabetes rates need much more health care resources and
disproportionately large investments in prevention efforts are advised.
The agency for ethics oversees all government activities.
It serves mainly in an advisory, educational role, but it has the
authority and obligation to veto decisions that violates ethics.
18.104.22.168 Specific proposals and directives:
Improving system of referenda and elections:
It is expected that usually a multi-party system develops, with many
candidates and possibly many equal positions, as in case of
representatives in a chamber of parliament.
• In elections, voters must 'grade' and rank all candidates as A, B, C
(very good, good, acceptable), D (no opinion, unknow or questionably
acceptable), F (not qualified for position, unacceptable), W (worst,
likely harmful or dangerous if elected). Within 'grades', candidates
are ranked as A1, A2, etc. A computerized system assigns numbers, e.g.
A1, A2 and A3 receiving 93, 90 and 87; B candidates receive 77-83; C
62-68; D 47-53; F 27-33; W 7-13. To be elected, candidates must have
high average numbers with less than half the population considering
them unqualified and few considering them worst/dangerous.
In referenda in which voters choose between different possibilities or options, a similar system is used.
• When voting on a numeric amount such as a budget item, every voter
gives a number; the median is the result (half voted higher, half
• For complex decisions (for instance voting on rates of taxation and
prioritizing budget items), either only community representatives or,
alternately, a representative sample of the people may be selected and
paid to study and discuss data before seeking consensus or voting.
Improving democratic functions:
- Cooperating groups with a required number of supporters may compel
referenda to be voted on by the population or community representatives
(or a representative sample of the people). Referenda may deal with
people’s priorities, cultural preferences or artistic tastes, possibly
interpretation of scientific data that differs from politicians’
predominant view, but not diverging from principal goals of global
ethics and broadly accepted scientific understandings. Generally,
preferences of a cultural or ethnic majority must not force their ways
on minorities, unless minorities maintain unethical traditions such as
suppression of women and girls, refusal of science-based treatment of
illness and pain relief, cruel or health damaging forms of initiation,
cruel ways of treating and/or killing animals, etc. Governmental
agencies must work out compromises that are acceptable to all
population groups, except for 'dissidents' that are apparently
emotionally imbalanced such as people with fundamentalist religious,
racist or supremacist views or by abuse-addiction disorders influenced
- People who lobby must represent groups other than their own; goals
must be derived from social concerns and consciousness; there must not
be conflicts between their goals as lobbyists and private gain. Paid
lobbying is not allowed, except that social concerns’ groups may pay
lobbying representatives’ expenses and replace some of their lost
income, or employers may allow individuals to see government
representatives during paid work hours.
- There are educational requirements for candidates and continuing
education for all public officials (focusing on ethics and a basic
understanding of human nature and cultural influences, on economic
processes, ecology, etc.).
Improving economic functions:
- The central (federal) bank must provide an adequate functional,
circulating money supply which does not depend much on loans and credit
from financial institutions. The individuals, businesses and
institutions must own most of the money they are working with; for most
interactions, they should not have to borrow money from financial
institutions. The federal bank works mostly through decentralized
development banks. Private banks and financial institutions are highly
- Issuing money directly into the circulating money supply strengthens
conservative, conventional bank functions: people can save while
borrowing mainly to buy homes; enterprises mostly invest their own
profits, borrow some to expand and to improve products and production
processes, and may sell stock to people who work in or are directly
involved with the enterprise.
- Governments may provide some services traditionally provided by
financial institutions, mainly to accept short- and long-term savings
and retirement accounts. Such savings are comparable to government
bonds and they are used for public works; retirement funds are invested
mainly for education of the younger generation and for maintenance of
infrastructures and other work that serve communities for the future.
- Local governments may issue local currencies as complementary money supply to stimulate local production and local trade.
- The system of taxation creates incentives to move towards goals that
are broadly perceived as positive. There are no income taxes; to
collect revenue and positively influence economic developments,
consumption/sales taxes and certain property taxes are assessed, with
rates of taxation reflecting goals of the civilization (highly taxing
luxuries, unhealthy and ecologically undesirable products to discourage
their use/consumption, e.g. encouraging mostly vegetarian eating
The economic system’s goals are developments that improve
people’s quality of life with no marginalized people. It includes
conserving and/or restoring natural environments as feasible because of
its beauty, to maintain natural balances of ecosystems and for the
benefit of future generations. A likely goal is that half of all land
is maintained in or returned to a natural state, as recommended by
Edward O. Wilson,
4.0.3 Human rights and laws last edited 2/2015, 11/2016, 9/2018
Until recently, there has been widespread open and hidden slavery,
colonialism with disenfranchised and exploited populations, and severe
discrimination of groups within most developed and rapidly developing
nations. Thus modern political,
social and legal thinking largely remain focused on the elusive terms
'justice' and 'freedom' as they were understood by 18th
century thinkers; the broad mistreatments and misunderstanding of women
and women's special needs are still not adequately recognized.
The United Nations document on the universal declaration
of human rights, adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution
217 A (III) of 10 December 1948, is very valuable but it is still largely based on those values. Only
article 25 (2) refers to special needs of mothers and children.
Formulations meant to outlaw forms of discrimination are formulated as
if there was agreement that all people are ‘equal,’ essentially rational,
having a conscience that is based on globally acknowledged morals and
having very similar emotional and physical needs.
Treating two different people in the same way leads to very different
results. Inherent temperaments, early cultural learning and many other
environmental factors shape people's thinking, emotions and behaviors.
Girls are different from boys; they have different inclinations,
vulnerabilities and needs for protection. Young women benefit from
considerations regarding opportunities to develop many of their
potentials while possibly becoming and/or being mothers. Boys must be
taught compassionate empathy and they must be taught to comply with
ethics and societal rules in ways usually much
less required for girls. When in groups, people, particularly males,
often encourage extreme positions, e.g. men who aggregate to drink and
talk about politics are likely to share more misconceptions and biases
than educating each other. In groups, individuals’ inclination to be
compassionate and empathetic is often suppressed.
People go through stages in which they may not want to
participate in a democratic process and they should be discouraged to
vote without studying options. Many people have emotional and/or
intellectual weaknesses that preclude higher education and/or a
meaningful right to vote, much less serve in governmental functions.
Consequently, democratic processes may need more safeguards and adjustments than a
rule of ‘one person – one vote.’
The issue of cruel practices and the condoning of many
forms of abuse within cultures, subcultures and families may not have
been adequately addressed even in highly industrialized countries.
There is significant preventive value in the teaching of broad empathy
and other aspects of ethics in
the context of school education, games and entertainment. Adolescents must work on establishing an ethical personal culture. Protecting
children from major
abuse and addressing abuse experiences in therapy also helps prevent
abuse in future generations.
Ethics transgressions may be
dealt with in a peaceful way as, for instance, practiced by
the Amish. In most situation, discussing conflicts may lead to a
resolution between victims’ and perpetrators’ families, if it includes making some reasonable amends and forgiving with an
understanding that the whole community that raised the perpetrator
rights are advanced by avoiding punishments that vindicate wrongdoing.